The latest buzz floating around the broadcast industry has been Video over IP. NAB 2016 was certainly a large stage for major manufacturers to showcase their solutions to a new evolution in the way broadcast Video will be transmitted beyond the legendary SDI. The adoption of Video over IP has certainly been a controversial one, with plenty of solutions for customers to choose from, however the vast majority that is interested is uncertain of which ones will fulfill their needs and wants as the technology matures.
This chart takes into consideration the seven planes of interoperability (media transport, timing, compression, flow control, flow switching, device control and discovery, identity) as defined by the Joint Task Force on Networked Media (EBU, VSF, SMPTE, and AMWA) in their efforts to define Minimum Viable System (MVS) requirements.
|Sony IP Live||Evertz Aspen||VSF TR-03||VSF TR-04||SMPTE 2022-5/6||IntoPix TICO|
|Uncompressed Video||NMI||RDD 37 Video PES||RFC 4175||SMPTE 2022-6||Yes||No|
|Uncompressed Audio||NMI||SMPTE ST 302 Audio PES||AES67 / RFC 3190||AES67 / RFC 3190||Embedded||No|
|Compressed Video||LLVC||No||No||No||Opt JPEG2K||Yes|
|Metadata||NMI||SMPTE ST 2038 Meta PES||IETF RTP Proposal||SMPTE 2022-6||Embedded||No|
|Forward Error Correction||Frame Aligned||No||No||No||Not Aligned||No|
|Independent Packetization||NMI||TS over SMPTE 2022-2||Yes||No||No||Not Specified|
|Discovery||Plug & Play (NDCP)||JSON-RPC||NMOS||NMOS||No||No|
|Identity||Plug & Play (NDCP)||JSON-RPC||NMOS||NMOS||No||No|
|Timing / Sync||SMPTE 2059||TS PCR/PTS||RFC 4566 (SDP)||RFC 4566 (SDP)||No||No|
|Control||Sony IP Live System Manager||Evertz MAGNUM||No||No||No||No|
|COTS IP Switch||Yes||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||Not Specified|
|SMPTE Standard||RDD 34 (LLVC)|
RDD 40 (NMI)
RDD 38 (NDCP)
SMPTE 2059 (PTP)
|RDD 37 (ASPEN)||VSF Reccomendation||VSF Reccomendation||SMPTE 2022-5/6||RDD 35 (TICO)|
|Endpoint Validation||Sony Testing Lab||No||No||No||No||No|
Sony IP Live
Sony IP-Live is the only complete ecosystem for end to end transmission of compressed or uncompressed Video over IP using COTS IP switches. The Sony IP-Live system consists of an ultra-high quality, Low Latency Video Codec (LLVC), individual packetization of Video, Audio, Metadata, and a robust frame-aligned Forward Error Correction (FEC) system. The LLVC codec enables 4Kp60 transmission over 10G IP networks or 4Kp60 uncompressed over 25G IP networks. Learn More - Sony IP Live
Technical Recommendation for transmitting audio, video and ancillary data as separate streams. This allows video streams to be sent to video devices and audio streams to be sent to audio devices. Care needs to be taken to ensure proper synchronization, ideally through SMPTE 2059 PTP.
Technical Recommendation for encapsulating the SDI embedded stream into IP. This is the simplest approach suggested by VSF, but does not allow for separate routing of audio and video.
Developed by SMPTE, these are IP encapsulation methods for uncompressed media content.
- 2022-5 in an optional component which implements an XOR Forward Error Correction (FEC).
- 2022-6 adds specific headers to the SDI data stream to create a “2022 datagram”. This is transported over RTP/UDP/IP.
- 2022-7 is a “hitless” redundancy option for 2022, NMI, etc., whereby 2 streams are sent over 2 physical interfaces and the first one that arrives at the decoder is used.
Developed by IntoPix, who started the TICO Alliance. A small footprint wavelet based codec used as part of a larger IP system, or as a way to squeeze 4k into a 3G coax infrastructure. Supports up to 3:1 compression visually lossless. The codec was submitted to SMPTE and released as SMPTE RDD 35.
AES67 - A layer 3 protocol developed by the Audio Engineering Society, this is the most common standard for audio over IP.
AIMS - The Alliance for IP Media Solutions (AIMS), is a non-profit trade alliance that promotes the open standards that broadcast and media companies use to move from legacy SDI systems to a virtualized, IP-based future. Led by Grass Valley and Imagine, this group is promoting the VSF TR03 and TR04 “protocols”. TR actually stands for Technical Recommendation, so these are not standards, but rather the input suggestions into the standards community. Learn More - AIMS Alliance
AVB - Audio Video Bridging also known as IEEE 802.1BA, 802.1Qat, 802.1Qav and 802.1AS. This system supports timing, bandwidth reservation, and queuing, but requires special AVB-aware switches.
DANTE - (Digital Audio Network Through Ethernet) was developed by Australian company Audinate. It is being proposed as an Audio over IP Standard, but differs from AES67 and SMPTE ST302.
Datagram - A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between this source and destination computer and the transporting network.
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards. Now that “professional” video and audio are transported over the same networks as internet traffic Ethernet or IP. They are contributing recommendations, standards and protocols. Their mechanism for technical suggestions comes under RFC- Request For Comments. Sometimes the IETF adopts some of the RFC’s as Internet Standards.
JT-NM (Joint Task Force on Networked Media) - This was created by the EBU, SMPTE and VSF to support the transition to IP.
JPEG 2K - A standard for compressing sequences of JPEG 2000 images for motion.
JSON-RPC - A remote procedure call protocol, which allows for notifications and for multiple calls to be sent to the server which may be answered out of order.
LLVC (Low Latency Video Converter) - Developed by Sony, this technology is to support the video compression required for 4K 60p transmission over 10 Gbps Ethernet.
NDI (Network Device Interface) - This system was developed by NewTek to provide a low bandwidth alternative. NDI uses a temporal codec, rather than a spatial (I-Frame only) codec like the others, to improve channel density. Learn More - NewTek NDI
NMI (Networked Media Interface) - This system was developed by Sony as part of their IP-Live system, which includes the Low Latency Video Codec (LLVC), NMI packetizer with Frame-aligned FEC, and Network Device Control Protocol (NDCP) for registration, discovery, and frame accurate switching through COTS switches. All three have been submitted to SMPTE and released as SMPTE RDD 34, RDD40, and RDD38, along with the Sony developed SMPTE 2059 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) system. Supports up to 6:1 compression visually lossless. Learn More - Sony NMI
NMOS (Networked Media Open Specification) - The use of logical data model to add identity, relationships and time-based information to content and broadcast equipment.
PCR (Program Clock Reference) - Overall clock reference which is transmitted in the transport stream for synchronization of the PTS.
PTS (Precision Timestamp) - Timestamped metadata in an MPEG TS for use in synchronization in audio and video streams.
RDD (Registered Disclosure Documents) - Documents within the scope of interest of the SMPTE, submitted by any entity that wishes to make a disclosure available to the public and to use the Society’s publication and distribution mechanisms for this purpose. These may be published document of general interest to the industry that are not Engineering Documents.
RFC 3190 - Published by the IETF, this is the packetization scheme for encapsulating nonlinear and linear audio data streams using the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
RFC 3550 - This is the IETF protocol for real time transport (RTP) in end to end transport functions for live video, audio, and metadata over a network.
RFC 4175 - This is the IETF protocol to encapsulate SDI to an IP Stream for transport. RFC4175 is only the encapsulating technology not the transport protocol. VSF TR-03 suggests the use of RFC4175 for transporting video payloads.
RFC 4566 - Published by the IETF, the Session Description Protocol (SDP) is a format for describing streaming media initialization parameters.
RTSP – Real Time Streaming Protocol falls under Internet Streaming and being adopted for real time streaming over networks.
SMPTE 2059 - These are the network timing and synchronizing standards enabling “Network Genlock”. Originally developed by Sony, based on the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) standard.
SMPTE 2110 - This is the SMPTE designation assigned to the VSF TR03 & TR04 submittal as the future Standard to transport audio and Video over IP networks.
- 2110-10: Timing and definitions
- 2110-20: Uncompressed active video
- 2110-30: Uncompressed PCM audio
- 2110-40: Ancillary data
- 2110-50: Embedded essence
SMPTE ST 2038 - Transport of ancillary data packets in an MPEG-2 Transport Stream.
SMPTE ST 302 - This audio standard specifies how to transport AES3 audio in an MPEG-2 Transport Stream.
SVIP - Studio Video over IP
VSF (Video Services Forum) - VSF is not a standards body, but rather develops technical recommendations as a basis for future standards. The group created two technical references TR03 & TR04, which are the starting point for SMPTE 2110 development. Learn More - Video Services Forum